Boron is necessary for cell division and differentiation. It helps maintain a balance between sugar and starch and aids in the movement of calcium. Boron is also essential for the germination of the pollen grains and pollen tubes in plants and has a direct effect on yield. No pollination, no crop.
Cobalt plays a critical role in the overall growth of plants. Cobalt is necessary for the processes of stem growth, elongating the coleoptiles, and expanding leaf discs. A cobalt deficiency will reduce or stunt plant growth and reduce seed germination.
Copper aids in root metabolism and the utilization of proteins. Copper is essential for better stalks or stems and standability. It is also key to seed coat resiliency, disease control, test weight, and seed size.
Iron is required for the formation of chlorophyll in plant cells. It activates respiration, photosynthesis, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Low iron levels in the plant result in poor energy transfer from leaves to growing points or fruiting structures thus slowing growth and lowering yields.
Manganese plays a major role in the production of chlorophyll. It directly affects the health of the crop and whether a plant reaches maturity or not. Manganese deficiency is a widespread problem, but is most often found in sandy soils or in soils with a pH above 6.0.
Molybdenum acts as a catalyst in nitrate reduction, and in nitrogen transport and utilization within the plant. Molybdenum is also associated with disease resistance in plants.
Nickel is important in nitrogen metabolism because it is a component of the urease enzyme. Without the presence of nickel, urea conversion is impossible. It is required in very small amounts, with the critical level appearing to be about 0.1 ppm.
Zinc is necessary for chlorophyll and carbohydrate production. High yields are impossible without zinc due to its importance in growth, metabolism, and photosynthesis. High soil phosphorus, soil organic matter, biological activity, and irrigation play a role in zinc availability.
For optimal plant and soil health, a proper balance of primary nutrients, secondary nutrients and micronutrients needs to be maintained. It is important to pull soil and tissue samples to verify what needs your crops have before making any adjustments to your current fertility program.